Types of Coffee

Have you ever entered a cafe with friends, and had no real clue as to what everything on the menu was?

Whilst walking through the doorway to the mythical land of coffee, almost everyone feels this sort of confusion.

Today’s goal is to make you feel as comfortable as possible when it comes to the various coffee beverages.My grandad is still convinced that “there are only 2 types of coffee, black and white. He also thinks that the instant granulated stuff tastes just as good as that stuff they have the nerve to sell for a small fortune in those fancy coffee shops!”


What is “Brewed Coffee”?

Brewed Coffee: This is typically coffee brewed in a drip brewing machine. Not too fancy.

What is an Espresso?

Espresso: The liquid gold that comes out of an espresso machine. It is a small amount of super concentrated and flavourful coffee. It is the base of a lot of coffee related beverages.

What is a Doppio?

Doppio: This is two shots of espresso. Served in a demitasse, and is typically consumed by the more extreme coffee enthusiast.

What is a Latte?

Latte: A staple in cafes across the globe. They contain espresso shots, steamed milk, and a small dollop of foam on top. Lattes are also known for having flavors added, such as vanilla or hazelnut.

What is a Cappuccino?

Cappuccino: Another extremely popular drink. A cappuccino is a drink composed of espresso shots, steamed milk and a ton of foam. Cappuccinos weigh almost nothing, and can really showcase the skills of a barista and their milk steaming abilities. The name was derived from the brown habits worn by the Capuchin monks.


What is a Americano?

Americano: Espresso shots diluted with hot or cold water. These drinks replicate brewed coffee in a way, and are usually loaded with flavour. There is a story that states that when American soldiers went into Europe during World War II, the espresso there was too strong, so they diluted it with water, thus, the Americano was born.

What is a Flat White?

Flat White: This is a drink that originated in Australia. It is composed of a succulent sweet ristretto (or Cortissimo) shot, and steamed whole milk. No sugar is needed, as the drink is naturally as smooth as silk. Due to the contrast of milk and coffee a leaf or other shape or design is made as the milk is poured out.

What is a Revolute?

Revolute: Originating in the UK and similar to a Flat white but much stronger with a higher caffeine hit. It is essentially a double Cortissimo shot with either two shots, one short then one long or a short and long extraction of a large 20g shot. Micro Foamed milk is poured in blending with the Coffee leaving a spiral shape on the top.

What is a Iced Coffee?

Iced Coffee: This is brewed coffee that was made hot, and then chilled with ice. Great for watching the sun set on those hot summer nights.

What is a Cold Brew Coffee?

Cold Brew: Coffee made using room temperature or chilled water, and is far less acidic than traditionally brewed coffee. It is usually strong in nature, so adding ice will not dilute it. It will also contain less caffeine.

What is a Chai Latte?

Chai Latte: Chai is a sort of black tea, that has a plethora of spices added, such as cinnamon, clove, and other mulling spices. Often made from a syrup and contains lots of sugar. It is sold in many coffee shops, but is not a coffee at all so it shouldn’t really be on this page but people keep asking!

What is a Cortado?

Cortado: This is slightly like a latte, but with a lot less steamed milk. Usually only enough to change the colour a few shades.

What is an Espresso Con Panna?

Espresso Con Panna: Usually two espresso shots, topped with a bit of whip cream. The sweetness of the whip cream pairs quite well with the hot and strong espresso.

What is an Irish coffee?

Irish coffee: A shot of espresso, and whisky with a generous amount of sugar (usually brown) topped off with thick cream. (in some areas the cream is whipped but that is not the original recipe)

What is a Macchiato?

Macchiato: Espresso shots topped off with a dab of steamed milk.

What is a Caramel Macchiato?

Caramel Macchiato: Espresso shots topped off with a dab of steamed milk and a lattice of caramel sauce on top.

What is a Mocha?

Mocha: Similar to a latte, but with the addition of chocolate sauce. Meant for those with a sweet tooth, these whip cream topped beauties are sure to please the chocolate lover in you.

What is a Cafe Cubano?

Cafe Cubano: Espresso shots, typically from a moka pot, that are whisked intensely with cane sugar. If the sugar and shots are mixed properly, a layer of foam will appear on top.

What is a Espresso Romano?

Espresso Romano: A shot of espresso served with a slice of lemon. Apparently great for weightloss taken as a morning beverage!!

What is a Bon Bon??

Bon Bon: A shot of Espresso over a layer of sweetened condensed milk (Dulce de leche) 80% Espresso 20% milk. An ideal afternoon drink, smooth sweet and providing a nice coffee hit. Stir it before drinking, although it is served as a separated layer.

Milk & other options

There are also additional options to ask for.

Skinny – low fat skimmed milk.

Milk Alternatives

Soya – a sweet milk made from Soya beans.

Coconut Milk –  A new option that gives a coffee a dessert taste

Nut Blend Milk – A milk made from nuts, which is very milk like in appearance and adds a hazelnut taste to the coffee.

Oat Milk – a watery mix of oat to a milk like substance, not a good substitute in our opinion.

We have a guide to milk alternatives here.

Other options for coffee

Double – Extra shots of espresso for a stronger flavour.

Triple – 3 shots of wake up juice.

Lungo – generally a longer espresso extraction that will contain more coffee.

Syrup – most coffee shops offer a variety of syrups to flavour the coffee, but this adds sugar and calories!!

Cream – fresh cream is added to the top.

This is but a simple list of but a few drinks you might find in your local coffee house. All of them are worth trying at least once.

Hopefully now you can march into the nearest cafe, and confidently order a flat white with a grin, knowing you will be about to enjoy a wonderful beverage.

Let’s have a Look at the Shots in more detail

By using an alternative shot you can dramatically alter the taste profile of the drink you are making.

Doppio Espresso

Doppio Shot is an Italian expression that means “double shot.”
Two shots of espresso are combined to make a Doppio Espresso drink.

How to make a Doppio

Prepare a Espresso Doppio by drawing two espresso shots from an espresso machine and combining them together (for a total of around 3 ounces).

The most ideal cup for serving a doppio espresso is a demitasse or a Cappuccino cup.A doppio serves as an alternative to the traditional 30 ml shot of espresso, providing a 60 ml dosage of espresso.

Doppio is also known as Doppio Espresso, or in certain quarters, as Double Shot.

Corto Shots

Corto Espresso shots (commonly mistaken with Ristretto) may be used as the foundation for a number of different beverages, but they also work well as a stand-alone espresso shot when served hot.

How to make a Corto Shot

Using hot water under high pressure to extract the water. Using the same quantity of water as an espresso shot, a rapid and brief extraction is essential.

So the difference between a Corto and Espresso is the amount of coffee grind used, with the Corto being much less.

To maximise extraction when an ultra fine grind is not available, firmly press the coffee into a cup.

Only 1 to 1.5 ounces each shot should be extracted under high pressure. It takes the same length of time to extract as espresso, and it uses the same quantity of water, which might flow more or less quickly depending on your machine.

A rich brown colour and a sweet flavour should characterise the crema. It will be somewhat less bitter than a Espresso shot, but it will still have a powerful body and a chocolate aftertaste.

Ristretto shot

In addition to serving as the base for a number of other coffees, Ristretto shots (meaning “limited”) also function nicely as an espresso shot.

How to pull a Ristretto Shot

Here are some suggestions and approaches for producing a nice Ristretto.

Ristretto shots are distinguished by the fact that the quantity of water injected into the coffee is less than that used in a standard espresso shot but the same amount of coffee grind.

A sweeter and less bitter flavour results as a result of this change in procedure.

Long shots are shots that have had a significant amount of additional water pushed through the grounds, which will extract almost all of the flavour and caffeine from the grinds in a single serving.

Serve in a small cup and drink it all at once, or use as a base for other beverages by adding hot water and/or foamed warm milk to taste.

Ristretto shots

Extraction Method: Extraction with hot water under exceptionally high pressure. Ristretto Grind: Ultra fine extraction method The idea is to employ a rapid, brief extraction that uses around half to three quarters of the water in an espresso shot to get the desired result. To maximise extraction, if an ultra fine grind is not available, tamp the coffee extremely hard before serving.

Only 1 to 1.5 ounces each shot should be extracted under high pressure. When compared to an espresso, the extraction time is shorter, and less water is used.

A rich brown colour and a sweet flavour should characterise the crema. In comparison to a Espresso shot, the final shot will be less bitter and even verging on sweet for a dark roast, with a powerful body and a chocolate aftertaste.

Lungo Shots

A lungo shot is a kind of shot in which the shot is taken from the machine and topped up with hot water.

Known as Lungo shots, they are a variant on the Americano, which is similar to an espresso shot that has been topped up with warm water but more bitter as the water is run through the coffee grinds for longer.

With a lengthy full cup extraction from ground coffee, the Lungo produces a bitter cup with a high concentration of caffeine.

It is common for newbies to use their home pod machines to draw a whole cup from one pod, which results in a Lungo shot, without even realising they are doing so!

Course to Medium is the ideal grind for a great Lungo Shot Grind.

Hot water under moderate pressure is used in the extraction procedure. A lot of water and a lengthy extraction time are required in order to get the desired result.

5-7 ounces each shot are extracted slowly over 60 seconds on most devices (around 10 bar pressure).

With a little sour flavour, the crema should be quite thick and light brown in colour. The shot that is created has more caffeine than other shots and extracts more chemicals from the beans than the other shots available on the market today.

 ‘Cortissimo’ shots

Cortissimo shots are widely used as the foundation for a variety of different beverages, most notably the flat white and the Cortado, but they also work well in other coffee alternatives if you like a stronger flavour with less caffeine than regular shots.

How to pull a Cortissimo shot

Here are some tips and tactics for achieving a successful Cortissimo shot.

Twenty grammes of ground coffee should be used for each Cortissimo shot.

Fine Extraction with Cortissimo Grind: Using extremely high pressure, yeah, a lot of water pressure, we performed an extraction using hot water. Extraction should be swift and to the point. If you want to get the most flavour out of your coffee, tamp it down firmly.

Extraction of 0.7 ounces per shot at high pressure When compared to a Espresso, the extraction time for a Ristretto is somewhat less than half as long.

A rich brown colour and a sweet flavour should characterise the crema. The resultant shot has less caffeine than an espresso or Ristretto shot and has a sweet, syrupy, smooth texture with a very powerful coffee taste.

Revvivare Shot

In Italian, the term “Rvivare” means “to revive,” therefore the name Revvivare originates from this word.

In the United Kingdom, it was first introduced in Kent, and it swiftly gained popularity across Europe, as well as Australia and New Zealand.

With a caffeine blast, it’s effectively a double Cortissimo shot that’s perfect for a morning cup of Joe.

Pulling a Revvivare shot

Use no more than 20 grammes of ground coffee per shot, and make sure it’s 100 percent Arabica and medium roasted to get the best results.

Extra fine is the grind setting. Two-phase extraction using hot water under very high pressure is the method used here.

The portafilter needs to be fully loaded for this to work.

An initial extraction that is rapid and brief, similar to the Cortissimo, followed by a 5-second pause and then another shrot extraction to get as much as possible from the bean.

Purists can pull the Cortissimo from a double shot and single shot portafilter and combine them.

10 and 15 seconds for each shot at very high pressure for 1.5 ounces of extraction time (half an ounce then one ounce).

An estimated 10 second extraction period is required, followed by a further 15 seconds for the last ounce.

The extraction of 12 grammes followed by a somewhat lengthier 10 grammes extraction is preferred by certain baristas.

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